Category: Stuka startup

Stuka startup

The Stuka was instantly recognizable with its inverted gull wings, fixed spatted undercarriage and infamous Jericho-Trompete "Jericho Trumpet" wailing siren. It made its combat debut with the Condor Legion during the Spanish Civil War and was very accurate against ground targets. For the German commanders, the Stuka was their flying artillery. However, it was vulnerable to the more nimble fighters of the day, such as the Spitfire and Hurricaneand required fighter top-cover for protection in order to complete its missions successfully.

However, because of its early success and with no other alternative readily available, it would remain in production until almost the end of the war.

It was designed by Hermann Pohlmann of Junkers, at the insistence of Ernst Udet, who pushed it to the forefront of German aviation development. He dove from 1, m 3, ft releasing his bombs at m ftbefore pulling out.

Wolfram Freiherr von Richthofen, cousin of the famous World War I ace, feared that such high-level nerves and skill could not be expected of the average Luftwaffe pilot, but he was overridden by the Chief of the Luftwaffe Command Office, Walther Wever, and the Secretary of State for Aviation, Erhard Milch. However, secretly they were preparing to adopt the Stuka concept.

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They saw in the new plane, a great opportunity to improve the accuracy of bombing. A few Stukas could achieve much better results than an entire squadron of horizontal bombers.

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To meet these criteria, the Stuka incorporated an interesting feature which consisted of automatic pull-up system, which leveled the plane out even if the pilot blacked out during the dive maneuver. Experience showed that about half of the pilots would black out when pulling five Gs to recover.

The system worked by rolling the aircraft degrees, into a degree dive, whereby the dive brakes would extend and activate the automatic recovery system. When the aircraft reached 1, ft. He would then press a trigger on the control stick and the bomb would be released via a swiveling mechanism, below the fuselage, which allowed the bomb to clear the propeller. After the bomb was released, the dive flaps would automatically retract, the propeller pitch would change, and the controls would automatically pull the plane out of the dive and into a fast climb.

The only thing the pilot had to do was to aim the aircraft at the target. This system is why the Stuka became such a devastating weapon. At the start of the war, the Stuka was very effective in France and during the Polish Blitzkrieg lightning war. It was considered invincible, but what was not quite understood at the time, it excelled only when air superiority had been established. Finally, after being challenged by Spitfires and Hurricanes at Dunkirk, and after they took a severe mauling during the Battle of Britain inthey were restricted to night-bombing missions and were removed from operations over Western Europe.

However, it would suffer just as much later on, at the hands of Russian pilots flying Bell P Airacobrason the eastern front. As the war progressed, the strategy of the land dive-bomber had passed. However, dive-bombers still proved to be successful in the US Navy as can be attested by the success Curtiss SB2C Helldiverwhich sunk more ship tonnage than other aircraft during the war.Amphetamine and methamphetamine are central nervous system stimulants used to treat a variety of conditions; when used recreationallythey are colloquially known as "speed.

During World War II, amphetamine and methamphetamine were used extensively by Allied and Axis forces for their stimulant and performance-enhancing effects.

stuka startup

Due to the large underground market for these drugs, they are often illegally synthesized by clandestine chemiststraffickedand sold on the black market. Nathanson, a Los Angeles physician, in During World War II, amphetamine and methamphetamine were used extensively by both the Allied and Axis forces for their stimulant and performance-enhancing effects.

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Also in the s, the Japanese Ministry of Health banned stimulant production, although drug companies continued to produce stimulants that wound up on the black market. From toa series of acts were passed by the Japanese government to try to stop production and sale of stimulants; however, the production and sale of stimulant drugs continued through criminal syndicates such as Yakuza criminal organizations.

On the streets, it is also known as S, Shabu, and Speed, in addition to its old trademarked name. The United States in the s saw the start of significant use of clandestinely manufactured methamphetamine, most of which was produced by motorcycle gangs.

A notable part of the s mod subculture in the UK was recreational amphetamine use, which was used to fuel all-night dances at clubs like Manchester's Twisted Wheel.

Building Rudel’s Tank-Busting Stuka

Newspaper reports described dancers emerging from clubs at 5 a. Andrew Wilson argues that for a significant minority, "amphetamines symbolised the smart, on-the-ball, cool image" and that they sought "stimulation not intoxication [ Dick Hebdige argues that mods used amphetamines to extend their leisure time into the early hours of the morning and as a way of bridging the gap between their hostile and daunting everyday work lives and the "inner world" of dancing and dressing-up in their off-hours.

After decades of reported abuse, in the United States Food and Drug Administration USFDA banned Benzedrine inhalers [ citation needed ]and limited amphetamine to prescription use, but non-medical use remained common. Substituted amphetamine use has historically been especially common among Major League Baseball players and is usually known by the slang term "greenies". The ban is enforced through periodic drug-testing.

Junkers Ju 87

However, the MLB has received some criticism because the punitive consequences for amphetamine use are dramatically less severe than for anabolic steroid use, with the first offense bringing only a warning and further testing.

Methamphetamine was formerly in widespread use by truck drivers to combat symptoms of somnolence and to increase their concentration during driving, especially in the decades prior to the signing by former president Ronald Reagan of Executive Orderwhich initiated mandatory random drug testing of all truck drivers and employees of other DOT-regulated industries.

Up to a quarter of college students use Adderall to help them focus on their studies instead of its intended purpose of helping people with ADHD. This use sometimes continues after the student graduates college due to its addictive properties.

As ofamphetamines, especially Adderall, were increasingly being used by young white-collar workers who work long hours at demanding work. Many felt drug use was necessary to perform adequately.

One of the earliest uses of amphetamine and methamphetamine was during World War IIwhen they were used by Axis and Allied forces.Like our model this Stuka carried two 37mm anti-tank gun pods underneath its wings.

The kit offers a decal for the instrument panel. Cement the completed cockpit into one side of the fuselage, ensuring the cockpit floor is perpendicular to the side.

Move on to the horizontal stabilizers and attach the tips. Then slip the completed stabilizers into their corresponding fuselage slots and apply cement from the inside. Be sure the stabilizers are positioned at a degree angle before cementing the fuselage sides together. From the underside of the fuselage, cement the top sections of the wings into place—this assures a seamless fit and will eliminate sanding and filling later.

Before gluing the bottom portion of the wing into position, drill out the fittings for the 37mm cannon mounts and the underwing radiators. Cement the gun mounts and the radiators from the inside, and then glue the wings together.

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While the main parts of the model are setting up, assemble the four parts of the long-barrel cannons. This model is engineered very well, so if you were careful with assembly and gluing, only a few areas should need filling and sanding. To duplicate this sharp-edged camouflage scheme, first paint the entire top side RLM The color guide in the kit has a four-sided profile to help with this job. Creating and masking the pattern is tedious, but the results are striking. Painting the greenhouse canopy, which is a mass of tiny clear panels, is more manageable if you first mask all the vertical panels and then spray the frames.

Spray your model with a clear gloss coat to provide a smooth surface for the decals.

stuka startup

That decal will likely need several applications of Solvaset, a strong decal setting solution. Also note that the decal sheet omits the swastika tail marking, which I took from Aero Master sheet The Junkers Ju 87 or Stuka from Sturzkampfflugzeug" dive bomber " was a German dive bomber and ground-attack aircraft.

Designed by Hermann Pohlmannit first flew in The aircraft is easily recognisable by its inverted gull wings and fixed spatted undercarriage. Upon the leading edges of its faired main gear legs were mounted the Jericho-Trompete Jericho trumpet wailing sirensbecoming the propaganda symbol of German air power and the so-called blitzkrieg victories of — The Stuka's design included several innovations, including automatic pull-up dive brakes under both wings to ensure that the aircraft recovered from its attack dive even if the pilot blacked out from the high g-forces.

The Ju 87 operated with considerable success in close air support and anti-shipping at the outbreak of World War II. It led air assaults in the invasion of Poland in September Stukas were critical to the rapid conquest of Norwaythe NetherlandsBelgium and France in Sturdy, accurate, and very effective against ground targets, the Stuka was, like many other dive bombers of the period, vulnerable to fighter aircraft.

During the Battle of Britainits lack of manoeuvrability, speed and defensive armament meant that it required a heavy fighter escort to operate effectively. After the Battle of Britain, the Stuka was used in the Balkans Campaignthe African and Mediterranean theatres and the early stages of the Eastern Frontwhere it was used for general ground support, as an effective specialised anti-tank aircraft and in an anti-shipping role.

Once the Luftwaffe lost air superiority, the Stuka became an easy target for enemy fighter aircraft. It was produced until for lack of a better replacement. By ground-attack versions of the Focke-Wulf Fw had largely replaced the Ju 87, but it remained in service until the end of the war. The Ju 87's principal designer, Hermann Pohlmannheld the opinion that any dive-bomber design needed to be simple and robust.

Pohlmann continued to carry on developing and adding to his ideas and those of Dipl Ing Karl Plauth Plauth was killed in a flying accident in Novemberand produced the Ju A 48 which underwent testing on 29 September The military version of the Ju A 48 was designated the Ju K After the Nazis came to power, the design was given priority.

During the trials with the K 47 inthe double vertical stabilisers were introduced to give the rear gunner a better field of fire.

The main, and what was to be the most distinctive, feature of the Ju 87 was its double-spar inverted gull wings. The machine was also fitted with dive brakes for dive testing.Amphetamine and methamphetamine are central nervous system stimulants used to treat a variety of conditions; when used recreationallythey are colloquially known as "speed.

During World War II, amphetamine and methamphetamine were used extensively by Allied and Axis forces for their stimulant and performance-enhancing effects.

History and culture of substituted amphetamines

Due to the large underground market for these drugs, they are often illegally synthesized by clandestine chemiststraffickedand sold on the black market. Nathanson, a Los Angeles physician, in During World War II, amphetamine and methamphetamine were used extensively by both the Allied and Axis forces for their stimulant and performance-enhancing effects.

Also in the s, the Japanese Ministry of Health banned stimulant production, although drug companies continued to produce stimulants that wound up on the black market. From toa series of acts were passed by the Japanese government to try to stop production and sale of stimulants; however, the production and sale of stimulant drugs continued through criminal syndicates such as Yakuza criminal organizations.

On the streets, it is also known as S, Shabu, and Speed, in addition to its old trademarked name.

Ju-87 start engine

The United States in the s saw the start of significant use of clandestinely manufactured methamphetamine, most of which was produced by motorcycle gangs. A notable part of the s mod subculture in the UK was recreational amphetamine use, which was used to fuel all-night dances at clubs like Manchester's Twisted Wheel.

Newspaper reports described dancers emerging from clubs at 5 a. Andrew Wilson argues that for a significant minority, "amphetamines symbolised the smart, on-the-ball, cool image" and that they sought "stimulation not intoxication [ Dick Hebdige argues that mods used amphetamines to extend their leisure time into the early hours of the morning and as a way of bridging the gap between their hostile and daunting everyday work lives and the "inner world" of dancing and dressing-up in their off-hours.

After decades of reported abuse, in the United States Food and Drug Administration USFDA banned Benzedrine inhalers [ citation needed ]and limited amphetamine to prescription use, but non-medical use remained common. Substituted amphetamine use has historically been especially common among Major League Baseball players and is usually known by the slang term "greenies".

The ban is enforced through periodic drug-testing. However, the MLB has received some criticism because the punitive consequences for amphetamine use are dramatically less severe than for anabolic steroid use, with the first offense bringing only a warning and further testing. Methamphetamine was formerly in widespread use by truck drivers to combat symptoms of somnolence and to increase their concentration during driving, especially in the decades prior to the signing by former president Ronald Reagan of Executive Orderwhich initiated mandatory random drug testing of all truck drivers and employees of other DOT-regulated industries.

Up to a quarter of college students use Adderall to help them focus on their studies instead of its intended purpose of helping people with ADHD.

This use sometimes continues after the student graduates college due to its addictive properties. As ofamphetamines, especially Adderall, were increasingly being used by young white-collar workers who work long hours at demanding work. Many felt drug use was necessary to perform adequately. One of the earliest uses of amphetamine and methamphetamine was during World War IIwhen they were used by Axis and Allied forces.

As early asAkira Ogata synthesized methamphetamine via reduction of ephedrine using red phosphorus and iodine.History, development, service and dive-bombing tactics, specifications, pictures and 3D model Part I. Snow camouflaged Junkers Ju 87 B dive bomber taxiing in after a mission over the eastern front in winter In this led to a completely new design by Dipl-Ing Hermann Pohlmann, the head designer who had been with Junkers since The prototype Ju 87V1 flew in the spring of with a hp Rolls-Royce Kestrel engine and twin-tail fins.

While the smaller biplane Hs won the emergency program for dive-bombers as a gauntlet, it was the Ju 87, which won the competition for a heavy dive-bomber of the Luftwaffe. Subsequent prototypes and the first Ju 87A series aircraft no longer had twin twins and used Junkers Jumo engines with a power of to hp.

Structurally a resilient and modern designed machine, the Ju 87A had excellent flight qualities and was so easy to fly that the pilots initially tended to over control the plane. About Ju 87A were built from to and a handful of them went to Spain to the Legion Condor.

There the Ju 87 began to win their fearful reputation. Their disproportionate successes were out of proportion to the small number of machines which were used there, and they were particularly successful in the destruction of important bridges on the supply routes, port facilities and ships.

The large republican supply bases in Barcelona, Valencia and Tarragona were all attacked with heavy losses of ships. Other air forces, except for the Japanese and the Americans, seemed to have overlooked the lessons that a single Stuka with a single heavy bomb had a good chance of success, causing serious damage, or even sinking any ship class. Vics of Ju 87 dive bombers. The deafening scream of the diving aircraft belonged to the most terrible experiences of the population in the war zone.

The Ju 87A was always regarded as under-powered, which confirmed itself in Spain. The changes to the Ju 87B also included a redesigned fuselage, sliding roof over the cockpit and splayed wheels, while the armament of two 7.

The experience in Spain had shown that the pilots could become unconscious during the upswing and lose control of the aircraft. The Ju 87B became the main production variant and was built for almost two years.

The Ju 87B-2 variant flew for the first time at the end of and was able to carry a 1, kg 2,lb SC bomb, but only when the pilot was alone in the aircraft. The Ju 87C was a carrier-based version for the never finished aircraft carrier Graf Zeppelin. The few built Ju 87C were then finally used by land-based units and the aircraft still under construction finished as B-2s.

This Ju 87R is seen in Norway in April Then a new model, it carried extra fuel plus underwing tanks and was a ship destroyer. The Ju 87R was the long-range version of the B-2 and had additional wing stations for extra drop tanks and auxiliary tanks in the outer wings.

stuka startup

It was first delivered in April At the beginning of the Polish campaign on September 2, the German Luftwaffe had 9 Stuka groups, which were equipped with Ju 87B, of which were operational.

These Stuka groups inflicted enormous damage on the enemy ground forces and fleets during the campaigns in Poland, Norway and France, but versus harder opponents like the Supermarine Spitfire and Hawker Hurricane during the Battle of Britain their losses rises promptly.

Regardless of this, Ju 87 B manufacturing carried on intotogether with large amounts for the Hungarian, Bulgarian, Romanian, and Italian air forces; as well as Ju 87 B carried on to operate successfully in Luftwaffe operations in the Mediterranean, the Balkans, Battle of CreteNorth Africa and Operation Barbarossawhere Germany continues to hold a degree of air superiority. On June 21,Stukas were ready for the support of Operation Barbarossa, of which were ready for action.

Even if every Ju 87 could have been flying four or five times a day, which is quite unlikely, and each aircraft would always have been ready, it would have only 1, Stuka missions a day on an almost 1, miles ca.History, development, service and dive-bombing tactics, specifications, pictures and 3D model Part I. Snow camouflaged Junkers Ju 87 B dive bomber taxiing in after a mission over the eastern front in winter In this led to a completely new design by Dipl-Ing Hermann Pohlmann, the head designer who had been with Junkers since The prototype Ju 87V1 flew in the spring of with a hp Rolls-Royce Kestrel engine and twin-tail fins.

While the smaller biplane Hs won the emergency program for dive-bombers as a gauntlet, it was the Ju 87, which won the competition for a heavy dive-bomber of the Luftwaffe. Subsequent prototypes and the first Ju 87A series aircraft no longer had twin twins and used Junkers Jumo engines with a power of to hp. Structurally a resilient and modern designed machine, the Ju 87A had excellent flight qualities and was so easy to fly that the pilots initially tended to over control the plane.

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About Ju 87A were built from to and a handful of them went to Spain to the Legion Condor. There the Ju 87 began to win their fearful reputation. Their disproportionate successes were out of proportion to the small number of machines which were used there, and they were particularly successful in the destruction of important bridges on the supply routes, port facilities and ships.

The large republican supply bases in Barcelona, Valencia and Tarragona were all attacked with heavy losses of ships. Other air forces, except for the Japanese and the Americans, seemed to have overlooked the lessons that a single Stuka with a single heavy bomb had a good chance of success, causing serious damage, or even sinking any ship class.

Vics of Ju 87 dive bombers. The deafening scream of the diving aircraft belonged to the most terrible experiences of the population in the war zone. The Ju 87A was always regarded as under-powered, which confirmed itself in Spain.

The changes to the Ju 87B also included a redesigned fuselage, sliding roof over the cockpit and splayed wheels, while the armament of two 7. The experience in Spain had shown that the pilots could become unconscious during the upswing and lose control of the aircraft.

The Ju 87B became the main production variant and was built for almost two years. The Ju 87B-2 variant flew for the first time at the end of and was able to carry a 1, kg 2,lb SC bomb, but only when the pilot was alone in the aircraft. The Ju 87C was a carrier-based version for the never finished aircraft carrier Graf Zeppelin. The few built Ju 87C were then finally used by land-based units and the aircraft still under construction finished as B-2s.

This Ju 87R is seen in Norway in April Then a new model, it carried extra fuel plus underwing tanks and was a ship destroyer. The Ju 87R was the long-range version of the B-2 and had additional wing stations for extra drop tanks and auxiliary tanks in the outer wings.

It was first delivered in April At the beginning of the Polish campaign on September 2, the German Luftwaffe had 9 Stuka groups, which were equipped with Ju 87B, of which were operational.


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